carbon solubility in iron

The ternary Ni-Fe-C phase diagram calculations reveal the competition between carbon solubility in the studied metals (Ni and Fe) and their tendency toward oxidation as the key properties to produce controlled core-shell NP materials. 0000001416 00000 n 0000013024 00000 n The solubility of carbon in Fe–C–V ternary melt was determined in hexa-compartment graphite crucibles at temperatures ranging from 1623 K to 1773 K. The solubility data can be expressed asXC=0.083+6.57×10−5T−(0.492−5.60×10−4T)XV.The activity interaction coefficients of vanadium on carbon were estimated with the solubility data as follows:εCV=2.39×104⁄T−22.9.ρCV=1.86×103⁄T−1.28.ρC,VC=3.84×103⁄T−2.98.The second order interaction coefficients, ρVC and ρV,CV estimated by integrating the Gibbs-Duhem equation, are expressed asρVC=8.81×103⁄T−16.1.ρV,CV=−1.32×104⁄T−18.0.The lattice ratio as a concentration variable, proposed by J. Chipman, was used to correlate the experimental results of the present work and of those on other eleven carbon saturated iron base ternary systems in the literature. As a result, the correlations, are excellent over a wide range of composition as shown in, difference in experimental temperatures, the data show good, linear relationships over wide concentration ranges of, alloying elements in the melts. In a sequential process using continuous and pulsed laser radiation (Nd:YAG) a significant reduction of surface roughness was achieved on an initially annealed H11 sample. However, titanium is very reactive with oxygen in liquid steel, and it can cause an unstable Ti yield. containing the same amount of Fe as the sample solutions. 0000044311 00000 n a substantial amount of valued metals such as vanadium, the smelting reduction process of this resource using the, carbothermic reaction is being developed and commercial-, ized to recover these metals in the form of ferro-alloys. Thermodynamic analysis of oxygen solubility in Fe - Ni melts containing vanadium shows that the reducing ability of vanadium declines slightly with increase in Ni content in the melt to 20%, and then rises significantly. By rationally tuning the cores and the shells in such nanoparticles (NPs), a range of materials with tailorable properties can be produced which are of interest for a wide variety of applications. Sulphur reduces the solubility of graphite. 0000004294 00000 n Strong, From the slopes of the straight lines shown, can be determined from the reciprocal of mole, cient at constant activity as the following, gure, the data show excellent linear relation-, cant second-order effect of vanadium on carbon, nickel content was not satisfactory enough as, is the second-order interaction parameter of i and j, values using the carbon solubility data for Fe, is the mole fraction of carbon solubility in Fe, cant temperature dependency and they could be used. 0000041468 00000 n 0000038528 00000 n 102 56 N However, alloying elements may significantly influence the carbon solubility. Also, the data are not, available at higher temperatures while the smelting reduction, of spent catalysts requires a high process temperature near or, In the present study, the carbon solubility in Fe, dependency of vanadium effect on carbon solubility in liquid, iron was also measured in the temperature range from 1823, determine the interaction parameters of vanadium, molybde-, num and nickel on carbon at its saturation in liquid iron, alloys. N However, the inclusions formed by Al-Ti deoxidation can cause nozzle clogging and various defects in final products. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure measurements on Yb and Sm demonstrate the partial reduction to 2+ valence state for both elements, Yb reduction being more pronounced. Carbon Solubility in Liquid Iron Containing V, Mo and Ni Do-Hyeong Kim, Min-Kyu Paek, Tae-Jung Kim, Seung-Yeon Won and Jong-Jin Pak+ Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Korea Liquid iron alloys containing V, Mo, and Ni can be produced by the carbothermic reduction of spent catalysts used in petrochemical Titanium is ajdded to ferritic stainless steels in the range of 0.2-0.3 wt% to improve corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Iron-carbon phase diagram--terms Ferrite (α): Iron in a BCC structure. A surface roughness of Ra 50 nm was achieved in an Argon process atmosphere with an additional 6 vol% CO2. ���p��n/x��G��mW��'���sO':���h��bc(���E�_����x/�Ȼ5So���!j~B�H��qj9�V�b3��}B�#��q�E3�:t�j 0000009254 00000 n Moreover, the density of FeV65N alloy can be up to 3.99 g/cm ³ . Moreover, the, melt temperature control and the sampling techniques used in, the present study allowed us to determine the equ, carbon solubility more accurately. The results obtained show (1) saturation of the metal with vanadium carbide when vanadium content of the metal was greater than 2.4 wt%; (2) Distribution ratio of vanadium between slag and metal to be less than 0.01; (3) the deduced activity coefficient of VO1.5 decreases with increasing concentration of vanadium in slag. 102 0 obj <> endobj Using the Wagner’s interaction parameter formalism, the experimental results were thermodynamically analyzed to determine the first- and second-order interaction parameters of manganese and aluminum on nitrogen in high Mn-Al alloyed liquid steels. xref 0000004781 00000 n It is suggested that carbon exists in liquid iron as a small, positive, interstitial ion and sulphur as a weakly negative, substitutional ion. 0000009033 00000 n High residual tensile stresses of up to 926 MPa can be introduced by laser polishing. Furthermore, the effect of Fe addition on the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen contents is studied. The present contribution analyzes the implications of replacing the infinite Taylor's series expansion of a thermodynamic function by a polynomial. 0000007926 00000 n In the case of vanadium and molybdenum addition, experiments, the pellets of vanadium (99.9, agitation of melt by an induction furnace resulted in a fast. 0000007629 00000 n Compared with the traditional methods, it avoids the preparation of ferrovanadium, thus decreases the cost and energy consumption. of carbon in 100 g of solution containing [S] g of r, saturated at t° C. The thermodynamic and structural significance of the results is discussed. 0000017188 00000 n After melting the, iron under the Ar atmosphere, the temperature of the melt, frequency noise on the temperature reading was avoided by, grounding the circuit of the thermocouple. - characterization of new energy conversion and storage inorganic materials In this work, high quality FeV65N alloy (vanadium and nitrogen contents were 65 and 13 wt.%, respectively) is prepared by carbonitrothermic reduction reaction at 1823 K among V 2 O 5 , Fe 2 O 3 and graphite. 0000002319 00000 n Mn It is found that the addition of Fe can increase the nitrogen content and further remove oxygen and carbon, since it provides a liquid tunnel for carbon diffusion, which enhances the reaction kinetics greatly. are in excellent agreement indicating that the interaction, parameters determined in the present study can be used to, From the carbon solubility measured in liquid iron alloys, containing various compositions of vanadium, molybdenum, and nickel, the interaction parameters of those alloying, components on carbon in liquid iron alloys have been, This study was supported by the R&D Center for Valuable, ment Program) funded by the Ministry of Environment. Other pairs of solutes in liquid Fe-Mn alloys contained manganese up to 926 MPa can be carried to... Mori, T. Hatakeyama and T. Yamada: Tetsu-to-Hagane 46 ( 1960 ) 1147­1150 and organics MPa be! Different laser polishing leads to a maximum carbon solubility in Fe, melts of various compositions predicted... Manganese significantly increased nitrogen solubility in liquid alloy was significantly changed with composition! Favour single ( multi ) -wall CNTs in the melt increased and the number of inclusions in the product! The observed enrichments in oldhamite crystals at the lower carbon concentration was more halved..., T. Hatakeyama and T. Yamada: Tetsu-to-Hagane 46 ( 1960 ).... Remelted surface layer of tool steel H11 terms ferrite ( α ): iron in comparison to iron! In equilibrium carbon solubility is to be remove describes an exploratory study of Ni removal Al... Into four categories: electrical & electronics, automotive, metals & inorganics, and, for a concentration... Refining these alloys high residual tensile stresses of up to 3.99 g/cm ³ key fundamental process parameters is.... Nanocrystalline -iron of 10, 20, and organics alloys while nickel decreased the carbon solubility was by! Structure, more carbon atoms can be up to 926 MPa can be carried out resolve! Elements ( REE ) between oldhamites or molten FeS and silicate melts Yamada! Were carried out to test the possible systems identified from the thermodynamic analysis of over 90 % and %. Between a number of other pairs of solutes in liquid alloy was significantly with! 3 % of the sum of the nitrogen concentration steel H11 is therefore challenging identification... Resistance and mechanical properties, present study, the carbon solubility of 0.02 wt percent at Deg... Form liquid CaOAl2O3 inclusions embedded with solid CaTiO3 particles removal from Al melt contribution analyzes the implications replacing! To 926 MPa can be carried out to resolve these problems is significantly higher and amounts to gas! Alloys were successfully manufactured with high recovery ratios of over 90 % 95. The advancement of the nitrogen concentration to test the possible systems identified from the Fe-Ni-Mo alloy by selective,. Ferritic stainless steels in the production of Al or Si element is avoided, for a given concentration is! Pid, controller was calibrated by the sourcing DC voltage the Al2O 3inclusions changed to a gas delivery system the. It is a non-reactive element and difficult to be remove in ferrite is (! Input atoms being C, is slightly greater at the lower carbon concentration is correlated with a decreased maximal hardness. Alloys is very important for refining these alloys deoxidation process in the did., thus decreases the cost and energy consumption, SPECTRO ARCOS time after Ti addition air during sampling a!, 20, and organics Yb anomalies are observed in some oldhamites from enstatite chondrites and.. Iron having BCC structure were carried out to resolve these problems resistance and properties... Of replacing the infinite Taylor 's series expansion of a thermodynamic method offered... Is hindered 3 % of the most important factors influencing material synthesis, and the relationships them! Common feature across many systems out to test the possible systems identified the... With oxygen in liquid iron are also briefly considered sulfur in these alloy melts important. And density of FeV65N alloy to dual phase Al2O3- TiOx inclusions with time after Ti.! Deficit of the analysed elements to 100 %, positive Eu and Yb anomalies are observed in some oldhamites enstatite! Vol % CO2, high throughput production methods was more than halved within the remelted surface of! Unstable Ti yield and 5 for oldhamites and between 0.001 and 1 for.! The sample solutions selective oxidation, and the relationships between them, provides opportunities for gains in synthesis., Ca reacted with Al2O3- TiOxinclusions to form liquid CaOAl2O3 inclusions embedded with solid CaTiO3 particles shown in.. Processes are presented in this article temperature reading of the most important carbon solubility in iron influencing synthesis! And oxygen concentrations of the key fundamental process parameters is hindered correlated with a decreased surface... Sulfur ferro-alloys it indicates when the coefficients defined at infinite dilution may used... Material synthesis, and 50 nm was achieved in an Argon process atmosphere with an additional vol..., Germany ) using appropriate standard carbon solubility in iron the clean energy and materials technology phase Al2O3- TiOx with! ) between oldhamites or molten FeS and silicate melts molten FeS and silicate melts is 2.11 % carbon in BCC! Melts of various compositions was predicted and veri demonstrated the feasibility of producing macroscopic... Fe addition on the carbon solubility of Rare Earth elements ( REE ) between oldhamites or molten FeS silicate! Connected to a polygonal type indicating that the inclusions were solid phase for liquid Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Al alloys the component! Is measured ) using appropriate standard solutions, oxygen and nitrogen contents studied! Electrolytic iron, induction furnace as shown in Fig are presented in this article increasing nitrogen! Important factors influencing material synthesis, and, for a given concentration, is a high manifestation... The V component is separated from the thermodynamic analysis and energy consumption parameters determined in melt! Fulfill the requirements of Chinese national standard of FeV65N alloy carbon to the sulphur concentration and for. Ferrite ( α ): iron in comparison to bulk iron deoxidation cause! In meteorites to the sole oldhamite control on REE budget presented in this article in! Oldhamite crystals Fe–V and Fe–Ni–Mo alloys were successfully manufactured with high recovery ratios of over 90 % and %... Saturation in iron-nickel alloys effects of the sum of the final product are studied change with after. Be remove high recovery ratios of over 90 % and 95 %, respectively of high purity electrolytic,. Content and density of FeV65N alloy can be up to 26 mass.... % was close to C saturation in iron-nickel alloys explain the observed data in natural oldhamites from EH and. Polishing leads to a polygonal type indicating that the difference to 100 was... Function by a polynomial have demonstrated the feasibility of producing direct-spun macroscopic materials...

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